These are found on both sides of the Bering land bridge, which was lost to the sea some 11,000 years ago. (2007) The giant panda, followed by the spectacled bear are clearly the oldest species.  Such masts can be very important to the diets of these species, and mast failures may result in long-range movements by bears looking for alternative food sources.  However, Ringe notes that while this etymology is semantically plausible, a word meaning "brown" of this form cannot be found in Proto-Indo-European. These smaller numbers can be explained by the fusing of some chromosomes, and the banding patterns on these match those of the ursine species, but differ from those of procyonids, which supports the inclusion of these two species in Ursidae rather than in Procyonidae, where they had been placed by some earlier authorities. i. An exception is the spectacled bear; native to South America, it inhabits the Andean region.  The female first name "Ursula", originally derived from a Christian saint's name, means "little she-bear" (diminutive of Latin ursa). They have been trained to dance, and were kept for baiting in Europe at least since the 16th century. , The subfamily Ursinae experienced a dramatic proliferation of taxa about 5.3–4.5 Mya, coincident with major environmental changes; the first members of the genus Ursus appeared around this time.  Other species may be nocturnal, active at night, though female sloth bears with cubs may feed more at daytime to avoid competition from conspecifics and nocturnal predators. They may be diurnal or nocturnal and have an excellent sense of smell.  The giant panda has become a worldwide symbol of conservation.  By contrast, polar bears have few parasites; many parasitic species need a secondary, usually terrestrial, host, and the polar bear's life style is such that few alternative hosts exist in their environment. Polar Bear Teeth – Video  Berries may be foraged in bushes or at the tops of trees, and bears try to maximize the number of berries consumed versus foliage. Staring is an aggressive act and the facial markings of spectacled bears and giant pandas may help draw attention to the eyes during agonistic encounters. A few days ago, a sloth bear named Durga had developed dental issues and during X-ray examination it was discovered that her right upper and left lower canines were dead. Bears have been hunted since prehistoric times for their meat and fur; they have been used for bear-baiting and other forms of entertainment, such as being made to dance. Its ability to digest cellulose is ascribed to the microbes in its gut.  European genera morphologically very similar to Allocyon, and to the much younger American Kolponomos (about 18 Mya), are known from the Oligocene, including Amphicticeps and Amphicynodon.  In ancient Greece, the archaic cult of Artemis in bear form survived into Classical times at Brauron, where young Athenian girls passed an initiation right as arktai "she bears". A Cephalogale-like species gave rise to the genus Ursavus during the early Oligocene (30–28 Mya); this genus proliferated into many species in Asia and is ancestral to all living bears.  Sun bears use their long tongues to lick up both insects and honey.  For example, Asiatic black bears in Taiwan consume large numbers of acorns when these are most common, and switch to ungulates at other times of the year. Typically, a bear plunges into the water and seizes a fish with its jaws or front paws. Note that the upper molars are rotated 90 degrees inward, which is the identifying dentition characteristic of the family Mustelidae (weasel family). It is the biggest, strongest bone of the skull. This complement is further reduced in all bats, which have a maximum of 38 teeth (I2/3, C1/1, P3/3, M3/3; Miller, 1907; Slaughter, 1970). Hence the teeth can be expressed by using the initials - I, C, Pm and P4. , Bears have a fairly simple digestive system typical for carnivorans, with a single stomach, short undifferentiated intestines and no cecum.  Below is a cladogram of the subfamilies of bears after McLellan and Reiner (1992) and Qiu et al.  Bears in North America are sometimes infected by a Morbillivirus similar to the canine distemper virus. They use their teeth to hold, tear and grind food before swallowing it. At certain times of the year, these insects can make up 90% of their diets. The American black bear is restricted to North America, and the polar bear is restricted to the Arctic Sea. In general these two species inhabit remote areas with little interaction with humans, and the main non-natural causes of mortality are hunting, trapping, road-kill and depredation.  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